Leon Festinger and James Carlsmith proposed the term cognitive dissonance which is Every individual has his or her Festinger, L. and Carlsmith, J. M. ( ). The following article by Leon Festinger and James M. Carlsmith is the classic study on Reprinted from Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, , 58, . Forced compliance theory is a paradigm that is closely related to cognitive dissonance theory. Leon Festinger and James M. Carlsmith () conducted an experiment entitled “Cognitive Consequences of Forced Compliance”. This study.

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The major results of the experiment are summarized in Table 1 which lists, separately for each of the three experimental conditions, the average rating which the S s gave at the end of each question on the interview.

Furthermore, since the pressure to reduce dissonance will be a function of the magnitude of the dissonance, the observed opinion change should be greatest when the pressure used to elicit the overt behavior is just sufficient to do it.

The ratings were of course done in ignorance of which condition each S was in. All S s, without exception, were quite willing to return the money. This study involved 71 male students from Stanford University.

The participants were 71 male students in totality. I’m sure you’ll enjoy it. The difference between the One Dollar and Twenty Dollar conditions is significant at the. Conclusion If a voluntary carrlsmith which has cost a lot of effort turns out badly, dissonance is reduced by redefining the experience as interesting.


Notice that dissonance theory does not state that these modes of dissonance reduction will actually work, only that individuals who are in a state of cognitive dissonance will festiner steps to reduce the extent of their dissonance. This is known as the principle of cognitive consistency. The other two-thirds however went through a procedure where a slightly embarrassed seeming and hesitant experimenter asked them for a favour. These three variables were public-private, true-persuasive, and high-low financial motivation.

For example, suppose you had to decide whether to accept a job in an absolutely beautiful area of the country, or turn down the job so you could be near your friends and family.

Festinger and Carlsmith – cognitive dissonanceCognitive consequences of Forced Compliance. Thus, if the overt behavior was brought about by, say, offers of reward or threats of punishment, the magnitude of dissonance is maximal if these promised rewards or threatened punishments were just barely sufficient to induce the person to say “not X. At the beginning of the study, “public” subjects signed a document in which they vowed to fesginger their counter-attitudinal position outside of the study.

When they arrived at the interviewer’s office, the E asked the interviewer whether or not he wanted to talk to the S.

Classics in the History of Psychology — Festinger & Carlsmith ()

If you took the job you would miss your loved ones; if you turned the job down, you would pine for the beautiful streams, mountains, and valleys. A laboratory experiment was designed to test these derivations.

In all the comparisons, the Control condition should be regarded as a baseline from which to evaluate the results in the other two conditions. Check out our quiz-page acrlsmith tests about:. This justifies the effort made.


Forced compliance theory

There has been a great deal of research into cognitive dissonance, providing some interesting and sometimes unexpected findings. A scenario was presented where the experimenter’s usual associate had been unable to attend for an upcoming session where a positive introduction to the tasks was to be given to the next subject. The results from this question are shown in the last row of Table 1. They were asked to rate how interesting they had found the discussion, and how interesting they had found the people involved in it.

The rub is that making a decision cuts off the possibility that you can enjoy the advantages of the unchosen alternative, yet it assures you that you must accept the disadvantages of the chosen alternative.

In the other two conditions, however, the S s told someone that these tasks were interesting and enjoyab1e. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Cognitive dissonance

The S s were told it was necessary for the experiment. The behavior can’t be changed, since it was already in the past, so crlsmith will need to be reduced by re-evaluating their attitude to what they have done. Retrieved from ” https: Recently, Festinger bas proposed a theory concerning cognitive dissonance.

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